Archive for July, 2010

POPMA Part 2: Organisation

July 11, 2010 1 comment

Personnel Organisation

The absence of order is chaos. Just as the absence of light is darkness. Which is why in the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System, you find the second element: organisation.

As you may have read in the previous entry, s.16, OSHA 1994, imposes a duty on the employer to have a written policy, organise the company to include OSH functions as well as having the necessary OSH procedures and methods.

There must be a system for OSH accountability and responsibility. Generally, all of it rests on the shoulders of the employer. However, for practical reasons, effectiveness and efficiency, these responsibilities and duties needs to be delegated.

For now, we focus on the duties of the employer. What must she do?

  • The employer needs to endorse the OSH policy;
  • The employer needs to set aside monetary, time and resource allocation for OSH;
  • The employer should incorporate OSH into the business plan and model;
  • The employer takes part in OSH committee meetings;
  • The employer must walkabout to see the compliance and administration of good OSH practices in their workplace.

By organising the company, the relevant personnel knows what their responsibilities are. The employer is then able to track who does what, where and when. In the event of an emergency, for instance, the relevant personnel would know immediately what to do to control the damage brought by the havoc.

According to Michael E. Gerber, author of The E-Myth Revisited, accountability simply means stand up and be counted. So you can say that OSH organisation identifies who’s to stand up and what they’re being counted on to do.

With proper organisation, the employer is then able to identify areas that needs improvement. This also includes the ability of the employer to discover the necessary training and competence workshop needed.

Procedure Organisation

To support the function of the Personnel Organisation, the employer needs to draw up and continuously revise a set of procedures, methods, techniques and system to guide the OSH personnel.

Unless it is quantified and orchestrated, it would be impossible for a company to carry out the policy satisfactorily and consistently. So, there should be a documentation system – recording what happened, who took action, and the outcome – to say the least.

In OSH MS documentation, there are four (4) levels:

  • Level 1: OSH Manual
  • Level 2: System procedures, e.g. procurement, accident investigation, recruitment, emergency response
  • Level 3: Operating procedures, Work instructions
  • Level 4: Forms, records.

Also, there is the need to identify communication methods. Communication methods can be divided into two categories: internal communication and external communication. Internal communication is the exchange of information within the company – employer-employee, inter-departments, employees to employers. External communication covers communication from the company to external parties.

Categories: OSH Management I


July 11, 2010 1 comment

Policy is a company’s direction and aspirations in a certain area. Activities undertaken by the company is designed to meet the policy.

Where Occupational Health and Safety (OSH) is concerned, Section 16, Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 states that:

… [I]t shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his employees and the organization and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his employees.

Based on this provision, there are several elements, or itineraries, which an employer must meet.

First, the employer must have a written OSH policy in the workplace.

Second, the employer must organise the workplace so this policy can be carried out. This includes determining responsibilities, duties and chain of command in a hierarchical method.

Third, the employer must have an arrangement to fulfill the policy. You may find plans, procedures and other methods necessary to carry out the policy.

Next, the employer must regularly update the OSH policy to accommodate the company’s business, industrial and technical activities.

Finally, s. 16, OSHA 1994 also compels the employer to inform the employees of the OSH policy and subsequent revisions.

At this stage, you should also consider Section 15(1), OSHA 1994:

It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure, so far as is practicable, the safety, health and welfare at work of all his employees.

You can deduce that, the policy:

  • Is specific to that organisation, taking into account its industry, size and nature;
  • Is as clear and direct as possible, easy to understand;
  • Is endorsed by the most senior accountable person within the organisation;
  • Is accessible and made known;
  • Regularly reviewed and revised;
  • Made available to external interested party.

Certainly, the policy must adhere to certain criteria, among others:

  • Protects “the safety, health and welfare at work of all … employees”;
  • Compliance with the law, rules and regulation enforced or imposed;
  • Engage the participation of their employees during formulation and revision;
  • OSH performance is constantly and consistently improved.

POPEA – Cornerstone of OSH Management

July 11, 2010 1 comment

In Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management, the acronym POPEA or POPMA can be regarded as the corner stone of OSH Management. But what does POPEA/POPMA stand for?



  • P – Policy
  • O – Organisation
  • P – Planning
  • M – Monitoring
  • A – Action

As a general framework, POPMA.POPEA may have other variance and modifications depending on the needs of the company, organisation or standard. But this is the, if not among the, basis for a systematic OSH Management System.

Categories: OSH Management I

First Video on MyDipOSH Channel on YouTube

July 10, 2010 3 comments

Dear reader of MyDipOSH,

In order to help you further, MyDipOSH is expanding to YouTube. We understand that to make things more interesting, you need a variety of ways on the presentation of information. So, beginning with our index video on Proses Penggubalan Rang Undang-Undang, you can also follow future videos on OSH and soft skills-related topics through our YouTube Channel:

As we progress, the team behind MyDipOSH hopes to improve the quality of our services. So, if you have any comments, thoughts or suggestions, feel free to forward it to us today! We are more than happy to hear from you!


Categories: Pengajian Malaysia

Peranan Eksekutif

July 9, 2010 Leave a comment

Badan Eksekutif merupakan salah satu badan di bawah doktrin pengasingan kuasa yang diilhamkan Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu. Nukilan Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws, menjadi asas fahaman pengasingan kuasa yang diamalkan oleh kerajaan-kerajaan di seluruh dunia, termasuk Malaysia dan Amerika Syarikat.

Secara dasarnya, tugas eksekutif adalah untuk melaksanakan undang-undang yang telah diluluskan oleh Badan Legislatif. Di sesetengah kerajaan demokrasi, badan Eksekutif mempunyai kuasa untuk mempersetujui atau menolak rang undang-undang daripada Badan Legislatif. Namun, dalam melaksanakan tanggungjawab-tanggungjawab ini, Badan Eksekutif wajib bertindak berlandaskan undang-undang yang terlibat. Seperti contoh, undang-undang keselamatan dan kesihatan perkerja di bawah Akta Kesihatan dan Keselamatan Pekerja 1994 hanya boleh dikuatkuasakan oleh Jabatan dan agensi berkenaan. Pihak anggota polis atau jabatan agama, sebagai contoh, tidak boleh membuat penangkapan ke atas majikan yang tidak mematuhi peruntukan Akta berkenaan.

Seterusnya, Eksekutif di Malaysia bertanggungjawab untuk merangka dasar-dasar persekutuan. Apakah perbezaan dasar dengan rang undang-undang? Dasar merupakan fahaman atau halatuju yang ingin digunapakai pihak pentadbiran. Jika terdapat percanggahan dengan sebarang dasar kerajaan, seseorang rakyat Malaysia tidak boleh dipenjarakan mahupun dikenakan tindakan undang-undang sivil. Pihak-pihak tertentu mungkin boleh menjadikannya ia sesuatu isu. Dasar boleh diubah oleh Menteri yang baru mengambil alih jawatan tersebut. Rang undang-undang pula hanya boleh dipinda, dimansuhkan dan diperkenalkan oleh Badan Legislatif. Contohnya Dasar Luar Malaysia. Semasa Tunku Abdul Rahman Ministry, dasar luar Malaysia adalah pro-Barat dan anti-Komunis. Apabila Razak Ministry, mengambil alih, Malaysia mengamalkan Dasar Luar Terbuka – buat pertama kalinya Malaysia menjalinkan hubungn diplomatik dengan negara-negara Komunis, khususnya Republik Rakyat China.

Kepimpinan tertinggi badan Eksekutif mempunyai 5 peranan. Peranan-peranan ini dibahagi antara Ketua Negara, iaitu Yang DiPertuan Agong Malaysia, dan Ketua Kerajaan Persekutuan, yakni Perdana Menteri Malaysia, serta Jemaah Menteri Malaysia. Lima peranan tersebut ialah:

  1. Simbol Kerajaan Persekutuan - Ketua Negara adalah Yang DiPertuan Agong manakala Perdana Menteri merupakan ketua politik negara;
  2. Ketua eksekutif, termasuk mengetuai birokrasi Persekutuan;
  3. Ketua Diplomatik – Jemaah Menteri menggubal dasar-dasar luar manakala Ketua Negara menerima tauliah daripada diplomat-diplomat asing;
  4. Ketua Angkatan Tentera – Yang DiPertuan Agong merupakan ketua turus angkatan tentera Malaysia manakala Menteri Pertahanan melaksanakan tugas pentadbiran bagi pihak baginda;
  5. Ketua Penggubal Undang-Undang – Sebagai komponen Parlimen, Yang DiPertuan Agong memperkenankan rang undang-undang yang diluluskan Dewan Rakyat dan Dewan Negara, memanggil persidangan Parlimen, membubar Parlimen dan seterusnya. Perdana Menteri, sebagai anggota Dewan Rakyat, dan Jemaah Menteri memperkenalkan rang undang-undang daripada pihak Kerajaan.
Categories: Pengajian Malaysia

Peranan Badan Legislatif

July 8, 2010 Leave a comment

Apakah tugas lazim Badan Legislatif? Seperti yang dijelaskan oleh nama badan itu sendiri, Badan Legislatif berperanan untuk menggubal, meminda dan memansuhkan undang-undang. Ianya dilakukan melalui proses penggubalan undang-undang.

Tahukah anda bahawa Badan Legislatif juga mempunyai peranan-peranan lain?

Sebagai wakil-wakil rakyat yang dipilih melalui proses pilihan raya, Ahli-Ahli Dewan Rakyat dan Dewan Undangan Negeri juga membincangkan isu-isu penting berkaitan dengan kawasan masing-masing. Dewan Negara, sebagai forum perwakilan Kerajaan-Kerajaan Negeri dan kumpulan-kumpulan tertentu juga bertindak sedemikian bagi pihak kumpulan atau kerajaan yang diwakili.

Secara kolektif, Badan Legislatif juga bertindak sebagai forum perbincangan dasar-dasar kerajaan serta isu-isu nasional.

Badan Legislatif juga mempunyai kuasa monopoli ke atas peruntukan kerajaan setiap tahun, termasuk penetapan kadar cukai, duti dan tariff. Badan Eksekutif hanya boleh membelanjakan wang yang telah diluluskan Badan Legislatif. Secara teori, Badan Eksekutif memerlukan kebenaran daripada Badan Legislatif untuk menaikkan cukai.

Sungguhpun pihak Eksekutif melalui Menteri mahupun diplomat mempunyai kuasa untuk menandatangani sebarang perjanjian antarabangsa, Badan Legislatif perlu menggesahkan applikasi perjanjian tersebut jika ia ingin dilaksanakan di Malaysia.

Di Malaysia, Badan Eksekutif bertanggungjawab kepada Badan Legislatif. Oleh itu, seseorang Perdana Menteri perlu mengekalkan sokongan majoriti ahli Dewan Rakyat. Di peringkat negeri, seseorang Menteri Besar atau Ketua Menteri boleh dilucutkan jawatan jika beliau hilang sokongan majoriti ADUN. Di peringkat persekutuan, kes seperti ini tidak pernah berlaku. Namun di peringkat negeri, ianya pernah terjadi di Perak, Sarawak, Kelantan dan Sabah. Pendek kata, Badan Legislatif berperanan untuk memastikan kebertanggungjawapan kerajaan (accountability).

Di Malaysia, Parlimen mempunayi kuasa untuk menamatkan Darurat yang diisytiharkan Yang DiPertuan Agong.

Di peringkat Persekutuan, Badan Legislatif ialah Parlimen Malaysia. Di peringkat negeri, Dewan Undangan Negeri merupakan badan legislatifnya.

Peranan Badan Judisiari dalam Konteks Malaysia

July 6, 2010 3 comments

Perlembagaan Persekutuan, dalam Bahagian IX, memperuntukkan penubuhan tiga peringkat mahkamah tinggi (superior courts), yakni:

  • Mahkamah Tinggi Malaya dan Mahakamah Tinggi di Sabah dan Sarawak;
  • Mahkamah Rayuan; dan
  • Mahkamah Persekutuan.

Secara dasarnya, peranan mahkamah-mahkamah tinggi ini adalah:

  • Menegakkan undang-undang – Badan Legislatif menggubal undang-undang yang dilaksanakan Badan Eksekutif. Badan Kehakiman memastikan bahawa peruntukan undang-undang itu diikuti, termasuk dari kaedah penangkapan sehinggalah perngkat pendakwaan;
  • Mentafsir undang-undang – Badan Kehakiman mempunyai kuasa untuk mentafsir dan memberi maksud kepada undang-undang yang sedia ada. Jika mahkamah mendapati sesuatu undang-undang atau tindakan kerajaan bercanggah dengan Perlembagaan Persekutuan, mahkamah berkuasa untuk membatal undang-undang atau tindakan tersebut di bawah Perkara 4(1) dan 128(1)(a), Perlembagaan Persekutuan.
  • Mentafsir Perlembagaan – Antara fungsi utama Badan Kehakiman ialah mentafsir maksud dan kehendak Perlembagaan dalam sesuatu kes.
  • Menasihati Yang DiPertuan Agong – Yang DiPertuan Agong boleh merujuk kepada Mahkamah Persekutuan kemusykilan baginda tentang tafsiran Perlembagaan Persekutuan.
  • Mengadili perbicaraan antara Kerajaan Negeri dan Kerajaan Persekutuan atau di kalangan Kerajaan-Kerajaan Negeri;
  • Mengadili kes-kes jenayah dan sivil.

Introducing the Human Body

July 4, 2010 Leave a comment

You have to admit, the human body is one amazing coordination and combination of systems! Despite how amazing your body is, it’s sad that chances are you barely know of it. As an aspiring, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) practitioner, you should at least have the basic idea of what, where and how of the body. After all, if we take a stroll into the future, you’ll be responsible for the health and safety of a segment, if not the whole, workforce!

To start off, here are the fundamental systems in the human body:

  • Skeletal system – your skeleton;
  • Digestive system – how your body processes food;
  • Muscular system – your muscles;
  • Lymphatic system – the collection of lymph and tissues;
  • Endocrine system – How your body keeps you healthy;
  • Nervous system – how your body gathers information;
  • Cardiovascular/Circulatory system – how your body transports gases, water, foodstuff and waste;
  • Reproductive system – how your body creates new life;
  • Urinary system – how your body eliminates waste;
  • Respiratory system – how you inhale and exhale and what happens when you do;
  • Excretory system
  • Endocannabinoid system
  • Integumentary system – skin, hair and nails
  • Vestibular system – your balance and spatial orientation.

The reality is most – if not all – your systems run in autonomic fashion. Meaning you or the worker does not need to consciously control each system. No wonder we are guilty of neglecting and abusing it at times. ;-)

An exam or presentation tip: present what you know. Avoid mentioning systems or terms which you are uncertain of. The last scenario you want is you unable to answer questions about what you just mentioned!

Categories: Human Body Tags: ,

Perlembagaan Persekutuan & Perlembagaan Negeri

July 3, 2010 1 comment

Sistem Persekutuan yang diamalkan di Malaysia menghasilkan 3 peringkat kerajaan – kerajaan Persekutuan, kerajaan negeri dan kerajaan tempatan. Daripada tiga peringkat ini, terdapat dua “undang-undang asas” yang terdapat di Malaysia iaitu Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan Perlembagaan Negeri/Undang-Undang Tubuh Negeri.

Secara dasarnya, terdapat beberapa persamaan di antara dua dokumen penting ini. Dan untuk menegakkan dan mentafsir maksud perlembagaan-perlembagaan ini, Mahkamah Persekutuan dan pihak judisiari dipertanggungjawabkan.

Antara persamaannya ialah peruntukan kuasa eksekutif dan kuasa legislatif, kebebasan anggota badan legislatif, kaedah pindaan perlembagaan, Ketua Negeri bertinak di atas nasihat Ketua Kerajaan.

Terdapat juga perbezaannya tersendiri. Paling ketara ialah perlembagaan negeri tidak memperuntukkan sistem kehakiman sivil di peringkat negeri. Seterusnya, ia juga tidak memperuntukkan perlantikan sebarang jenis suruhanjaya di peringkat negeri. Juga, kuasa mengisytiharkan Darurat adalah dengan Yang DiPertuan Agong di atas nasihat Jemaah Menteri sahaja.

Fail PDF yang dikongsi merupakan jadual persamaan dan perbezaan perlembagaan persekutuan dan perlembagaan negeri secara asas. Terdapat pelbagai lagi perbezaan dan persamaan yang anda boleh perolehi di dalam kelas dan buku-buku rujukan sepanjang pengajian. Klik di sini.

Categories: Pengajian Malaysia

Doktrin Pengasingan Kuasa

July 2, 2010 Leave a comment

Untuk mempermuahkan pemahaman Doktrin Pengasingan Kuasa di Malaysia, anda boleh menggunakan carta minda di bawah untuk menggembangkan nota anda:

Pengasingan Kuasa

Anda juga boleh memuat turun carta minda ini di pautan ini: Doktrin Pengasingan Kuasa.

Categories: Pengajian Malaysia

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